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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of May 28, 2020

Title 42Chapter ISubchapter F → Part 70


Title 42: Public Health


PART 70—INTERSTATE QUARANTINE


Contents
§70.1   General definitions.
§70.2   Measures in the event of inadequate local control.
§70.3   All communicable diseases.
§70.4   Report of disease.
§70.5   Requirements relating to travelers under a Federal order of isolation, quarantine, or conditional release.
§70.6   Apprehension and detention of persons with quarantinable communicable diseases.
§70.7   Responsibility with respect to minors, wards, and patients.
§70.8   Members of military and naval forces.
§70.9   Vaccination clinics.
§70.10   Public health prevention measures to detect communicable disease.
§70.11   Report of death or illness onboard aircraft operated by an airline.
§70.12   Medical examinations.
§70.13   Payment for care and treatment.
§70.14   Requirements relating to the issuance of a Federal order for quarantine, isolation, or conditional release.
§70.15   Mandatory reassessment of a Federal order for quarantine, isolation, or conditional release.
§70.16   Medical review of a Federal order for quarantine, isolation, or conditional release.
§70.17   Administrative records relating to Federal quarantine, isolation, or conditional release.
§70.18   Penalties.

Authority: Secs. 215 and 311 of the Public Health Service (PHS) Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 216, 243); section 361-369, PHS Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 264-272); 31 U.S.C. 9701.

Source: 65 FR 49908, Aug. 16, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

§70.1   General definitions.

As used in this part, terms shall have the following meaning:

Airline means any air carrier or foreign air carrier providing air transportation as that term is defined in 49 U.S.C. 40102(a)(2), (a)(5), and (a)(21).

Apprehension means the temporary taking into custody of an individual or group for purposes of determining whether Federal quarantine, isolation, or conditional release is warranted.

CDC means the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services.

Communicable diseases means illnesses due to infectious agents or their toxic products, which may be transmitted from a reservoir to a susceptible host either directly as from an infected person or animal or indirectly through the agency of an intermediate plant or animal host, vector, or the inanimate environment.

Communicable period means the period or periods during which the etiologic agent may be transferred directly or indirectly from the body of the infected person or animal to the body of another.

Communicable stage means the stage during which an infectious agent may be transmitted either directly or indirectly from an infected individual to another individual.

Conditional release means the temporary supervision by a public health official (or designee) of an individual or group, who may have been exposed to a quarantinable communicable disease to determine the risk of disease spread and includes public health supervision through in-person visits, telephone, or through electronic or Internet-based monitoring.

Contaminated environment means the presence of an infectious agent on a surface, including on inanimate articles, or in a substance, including food, water, or in the air.

Conveyance means an aircraft, train, road vehicle, vessel (as defined in this section) or other means of transport, including military.

Director means the Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services, or another authorized representative as approved by the CDC Director or the Secretary of HHS.

Electronic or Internet-based monitoring means mechanisms or technologies allowing for the temporary public health supervision of an individual under conditional release and may include communication through electronic mail, SMS texts, video or audio conference, webcam technologies, integrated voice-response systems, entry of information into a Web-based forum, wearable tracking technologies, and other mechanisms or technologies as determined by the Director or supervising health authority.

Ill person means an individual who:

(1) Has a fever (a measured temperature of 100.4 °F [38 °C] or greater, or feels warm to the touch, or gives a history of feeling feverish) accompanied by one or more of the following: Skin rash, difficulty breathing, persistent cough, decreased consciousness or confusion of recent onset, new unexplained bruising or bleeding (without previous injury), persistent diarrhea, persistent vomiting (other than air sickness), headache with stiff neck, appears obviously unwell; or

(2) Has a fever that has persisted for more than 48 hours; or

(3) Has symptoms or other indications of communicable disease, as the CDC may announce through posting of a notice in the Federal Register.

Incubation period means the time from the moment of exposure to an infectious agent that causes a communicable disease until signs and symptoms of the communicable disease appear in the individual or, if signs and symptoms do not appear, the latest date signs and symptoms could reasonably be expected to appear. For a quarantinable communicable disease, incubation period means the precommunicable stage.

Indigent means an individual whose annual family income is below 200% of the applicable poverty guidelines updated periodically in the Federal Register by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services under the authority of 42 U.S.C. 9902(2) or, if no income is earned, liquid assets totaling less than 15% of the applicable poverty guidelines.

Interstate traffic (1) Means:

(i) The movement of any conveyance or the transportation of persons or property, including any portion of such movement or transportation that is entirely within a State or possession—

(ii) From a point of origin in any State or possession to a point of destination in any other State or possession; or

(iii) Between a point of origin and a point of destination in the same State or possession but through any other State, possession, or contiguous foreign country.

(2) Interstate traffic does not include the following:

(i) The movement of any conveyance which is solely for the purpose of unloading persons or property transported from a foreign country, or loading persons or property for transportation to a foreign country.

(ii) The movement of any conveyance which is solely for the purpose of effecting its repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, or storage.

Isolation means the separation of an individual or group reasonably believed to be infected with a quarantinable communicable disease from those who are healthy to prevent the spread of the quarantinable communicable disease.

Master or operator with respect to a vessel, means the sea crew member with responsibility for vessel operation and navigation, or a similar individual with responsibility for a conveyance. Consistent with the definition of “operate” in 14 CFR 1.1, “operator” means, with respect to aircraft, any person who uses, causes to use, or authorizes to use an aircraft, for the purpose (except as provided in 14 CFR 91.13) of air navigation including the piloting of an aircraft, with or without the right of legal control (as owner, lessee, or otherwise).

Medical examination means the assessment of an individual by an authorized and licensed health worker to determine the individual's health status and potential public health risk to others and may include the taking of a medical history, a physical examination, and collection of human biological samples for laboratory testing as may be needed to diagnose or confirm the presence or extent of infection with a quarantinable communicable disease.

Medical reviewer means a physician, nurse practitioner, or similar medical professional qualified in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases who is appointed by the Secretary or Director to conduct medical reviews under this part and may include an HHS or CDC employee, provided that the employee differs from the CDC official who issued the Federal order for quarantine, isolation, or conditional release.

Non-invasive means procedures conducted by an authorized public health worker (i.e., an individual with education and training in the field of public health) or another individual with suitable public health training and includes the visual examination of the ear, nose, and mouth; temperature assessments using an ear, oral, cutaneous, or noncontact thermometer, or thermal imaging; and other procedures not involving the puncture or incision of the skin or insertion of an instrument or foreign material into the body or a body cavity excluding the ear, nose, and mouth.

Possession means U.S. Territory.

Precommunicable stage means the stage beginning upon an individual's earliest opportunity for exposure to an infectious agent and ending upon the individual entering or reentering the communicable stage of the disease or, if the individual does not enter the communicable stage, the latest date at which the individual could reasonably be expected to have the potential to enter or reenter the communicable stage.

Public health emergency as used in this part means:

(1) Any communicable disease event as determined by the Director with either documented or significant potential for regional, national, or international communicable disease spread or that is highly likely to cause death or serious illness if not properly controlled; or

(2) Any communicable disease event described in a declaration by the Secretary pursuant to 319(a) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 247d (a)); or

(3) Any communicable disease event the occurrence of which is notified to the World Health Organization, in accordance with Articles 6 and 7 of the International Health Regulations, as one that may constitute a Public Health Emergency of International Concern; or

(4) Any communicable disease event the occurrence of which is determined by the Director-General of the World Health Organization, in accordance with Article 12 of the International Health Regulations, to constitute a Public Health Emergency of International Concern; or

(5) Any communicable disease event for which the Director-General of the World Health Organization, in accordance with Articles 15 or 16 of the International Health Regulations, has issued temporary or standing recommendations for purposes of preventing or promptly detecting the occurrence or reoccurrence of the communicable disease.

Public health prevention measures means the assessment of an individual through non-invasive procedures and other means, such as observation, questioning, review of travel documents, records review, and other non-invasive means, to determine the individual's health status and potential public health risk to others.

Qualifying stage is statutorily defined (42 U.S.C. 264(d)(2)) to mean:

(1) The communicable stage of a quarantinable communicable disease; or

(2) The precommunicable stage of the quarantinable communicable disease, but only if the quarantinable communicable disease would be likely to cause a public health emergency if transmitted to other individuals.

Quarantine means the separation of an individual or group reasonably believed to have been exposed to a quarantinable communicable disease, but who are not yet ill, from others who have not been so exposed, to prevent the possible spread of the quarantinable communicable disease.

Quarantinable communicable disease means any of the communicable diseases listed in an Executive Order, as provided under section 361 of the Public Health Service Act. Executive Order 13295, of April 4, 2003, as amended by Executive Order 13375 of April 1, 2005, contains the current revised list of quarantinable communicable diseases, and may be obtained at http://www.cdc.gov and http://www.archives.gov/federal__register. If this Order is amended, HHS will enforce that amended order immediately and update that Web site.

Reasonably believed to be infected, as applied to an individual, means specific articulable facts upon which a public health officer could reasonably draw the inference that an individual has been exposed, either directly or indirectly, to the infectious agent that causes a quarantinable communicable disease, as through contact with an infected person or an infected person's bodily fluids, a contaminated environment, or through an intermediate host or vector, and that as a consequence of the exposure, the individual is or may be harboring in the body the infectious agent of that quarantinable communicable disease.

Representatives means a physician, nurse practitioner, or similar medical professional qualified in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases, and an attorney who is knowledgeable of public health practices, who are appointed by the Secretary or Director and may include HHS or CDC employees, to assist an indigent individual under Federal quarantine, isolation, or conditional release with a medical review under this part.

Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) or any other officer or employee of that Department to whom the authority involved has been delegated.

State means any of the 50 states, plus the District of Columbia.

U.S. Territory means any territory (also known as possessions) of the United States, including American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

Vessel means any passenger-carrying, cargo, or towing vessel exclusive of:

Fishing boats including those used for shell-fishing;

Tugs which operate only locally in specific harbors and adjacent waters;

Barges without means of self-propulsion;

Construction-equipment boats and dredges; and

Sand and gravel dredging and handling boats.

[65 FR 49908, Aug. 16, 2000, as amended at 77 FR 75884, Dec. 26, 2012; 82 FR 6968, Jan. 19, 2017]

§70.2   Measures in the event of inadequate local control.

Whenever the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention determines that the measures taken by health authorities of any State or possession (including political subdivisions thereof) are insufficient to prevent the spread of any of the communicable diseases from such State or possession to any other State or possession, he/she may take such measures to prevent such spread of the diseases as he/she deems reasonably necessary, including inspection, fumigation, disinfection, sanitation, pest extermination, and destruction of animals or articles believed to be sources of infection.

§70.3   All communicable diseases.

A person who has a communicable disease in the communicable period shall not travel from one State or possession to another without a permit from the health officer of the State, possession, or locality of destination, if such permit is required under the law applicable to the place of destination. Stop-overs other than those necessary for transportation connections shall be considered as places of destination.

§70.4   Report of disease.

The master of any vessel or person in charge of any conveyance engaged in interstate traffic, on which a case or suspected case of a communicable disease develops shall, as soon as practicable, notify the local health authority at the next port of call, station, or stop, and shall take such measures to prevent the spread of the disease as the local health authority directs.

§70.5   Requirements relating to travelers under a Federal order of isolation, quarantine, or conditional release.

(a) The following provisions are applicable to any individual under a Federal order of isolation, quarantine, or conditional release with regard to a quarantinable communicable disease or to any individual meeting the requirements of paragraph (d), (e), or (f) of this section:

(1) Except as specified under the terms of a Federal conditional release order, no such individual shall travel in interstate traffic or from one State or U.S. territory to another without a written travel permit issued by the Director.

(2) Requests for a travel permit must state the reasons why the travel is being requested, mode of transportation, the places or individuals to be visited, the precautions, if any, to be taken to prevent the potential transmission or spread of the communicable disease, and other information as determined necessary by the Director to assess the individual's health condition and potential for communicable disease spread to others.

(3) The Director will consider all requests for a permit and, taking into consideration the risk of introduction, transmission, or spread of the communicable disease, may condition the permit upon compliance with such precautionary measures as the Director shall prescribe. The Director shall respond to a request for a permit within 5 business days.

(4) An individual to whom a permit has been issued shall retain it in his/her possession throughout the course of his/her authorized travel and comply with all conditions prescribed therein, including presentation of the permit to the operators of conveyances, as required by its terms.

(5) An individual who has had his/her request for a permit denied, or who has had a travel permit suspended or revoked, may submit a written appeal to the Director (excluding the CDC official who denied, suspended, or revoked the permit). The appeal must be in writing, state the factual basis for the appeal, and be submitted to the Director (excluding the CDC official who denied, suspended, or revoked the permit) within 10 calendar days of the denial, suspension, or revocation of the permit. The Director (excluding the CDC official who denied, suspended, or revoked the permit) will issue a written response to the appeal within 3 business days, which shall constitute final agency action.

(b) The operator of any conveyance operating in interstate traffic shall not:

(1) Accept for transportation any individual whom the operator knows, or reasonably should know, to be under a Federal order of isolation, quarantine, or conditional release, unless such an individual presents a permit issued by the Director or a copy of the Federal conditional release order authorizing such travel;

(2) Transport any individual whom the operator knows, or reasonably should know, to be under a Federal order of isolation, quarantine, or conditional release in violation of any of the terms or conditions prescribed in the travel permit or conditional release order issued by the Director.

(c) Whenever a conveyance operating in interstate traffic transports an individual under a Federal order or travel permit, the Director may require that the operator of the conveyance submit the conveyance to inspection, sanitary measures, and other measures, as the Director deems necessary to prevent the possible spread of communicable disease.

(d) The Director may additionally apply the provisions in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section to individuals traveling entirely intrastate and to conveyances that transport such individuals upon the request of a State or local health authority of jurisdiction. The Director shall consider the State or local health authority's request for assistance and taking into consideration the risk of introduction, transmission, or spread of the communicable disease, grant or deny, in his/her discretion, the request for assistance.

(e) The Director may additionally apply the provisions in paragraphs (a) through of this section (c) to individuals traveling interstate or entirely intrastate and to conveyances that transport such individuals whenever the Director makes a determination under 42 CFR 70.2 that based on the existence of inadequate local control such measures are needed to prevent the spread of any of the communicable diseases from such State or U.S. territory to any other State or U.S. territory.

(f) The Director may additionally apply the provisions in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section to individuals under a State or local order, or written agreement, for quarantine, isolation, or conditional release and to conveyances that may transport such individuals, upon the request of a State or local health authority of jurisdiction or whenever the Director makes a determination of inadequate local control under 42 CFR 70.2. The Director shall consider the State or local health authority's request for assistance and taking into consideration the risk of introduction, transmission, or spread of the communicable disease, grant or deny, in his/her discretion, the request for assistance.

(g) The Director may exempt individuals and non-public conveyances, such as ambulances, air ambulance flights, or private vehicles, from the requirements of this section.

[82 FR 6970, Jan. 19, 2017]

§70.6   Apprehension and detention of persons with quarantinable communicable diseases.

(a) The Director may authorize the apprehension, medical examination, quarantine, isolation, or conditional release of any individual for the purpose of preventing the introduction, transmission, and spread of quarantinable communicable diseases, as specified by Executive Order, based upon a finding that:

(1) The individual is reasonably believed to be infected with a quarantinable communicable disease in a qualifying stage and is moving or about to move from a State into another State; or

(2) The individual is reasonably believed to be infected with a quarantinable communicable disease in a qualifying stage and constitutes a probable source of infection to other individuals who may be moving from a State into another State.

(b) The Director will arrange for adequate food and water, appropriate accommodation, appropriate medical treatment, and means of necessary communication for individuals who are apprehended or held in quarantine or isolation under this part.

[82 FR 6971, Jan. 19, 2017]

§70.7   Responsibility with respect to minors, wards, and patients.

A parent, guardian, physician, nurse, or other such person shall not transport, or procure or furnish transportation for any minor child or ward, patient or other such person who is in the communicable period of a communicable disease, except in accordance with provisions of this part.

§70.8   Members of military and naval forces.

The provisions of §§70.3, 70.4, 70.5, 70.7, and this section shall not apply to members of the military or naval forces, and medical care or hospital beneficiaries of the Army, Navy, Veterans' Administration, or Public Health Service, when traveling under competent orders: Provided, That in the case of persons otherwise subject to the provisions of §70.5 the authority authorizing the travel requires precautions to prevent the possible transmission of infection to others during the travel period.

§70.9   Vaccination clinics.

(a) The Director may establish vaccination clinics, through contract or otherwise, authorized to administer vaccines and/or other prophylaxis.

(b) A vaccination fee may be charged for individuals not enrolled in Medicare Part B to cover costs associated with administration of the vaccine and/or other prophylaxis. Such fee is to be collected at the time that the vaccine is administered. The vaccination fee, if imposed, is shown in the following table:

Vaccine Effective dates Amount
Fluarix11/25/052$25.00

1Continuing for one year.

2$7.00 for the vaccine and $18.00 for administration.

[70 FR 3493, Jan. 25, 2005]

§70.10   Public health prevention measures to detect communicable disease.

(a) The Director may conduct public health prevention measures at U.S. airports, seaports, railway stations, bus terminals, and other locations where individuals may gather to engage in interstate travel, through non-invasive procedures determined appropriate by the Director to detect the presence of communicable diseases.

(b) As part of the public health prevention measures, the Director may require individuals to provide contact information such as U.S. and foreign addresses, telephone numbers, email addresses, and other contact information, as well as information concerning their intended destination, health status, known or possible exposure history, and travel history.

[82 FR 6971, Jan. 19, 2017]

§70.11   Report of death or illness onboard aircraft operated by an airline.

(a) The pilot in command of an aircraft operated by an airline who is conducting a commercial passenger flight in interstate traffic under a regular schedule shall report as soon as practicable to the Director the occurrence onboard of any deaths or the presence of ill persons among passengers or crew and take such measures as the Director may direct to prevent the potential spread of the communicable disease, provided that such measures do not affect the airworthiness of the aircraft or the safety of flight operations.

(b) The pilot in command of an aircraft operated by an airline who reports in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section shall be deemed to satisfy the reporting obligation under 42 CFR 70.4.

[82 FR 6971, Jan. 19, 2017]

§70.12   Medical examinations.

(a) The Director may require an individual to undergo a medical examination as part of a Federal order for quarantine, isolation, or conditional release for a quarantinable communicable disease.

(b) The Director shall promptly arrange for the medical examination to be conducted when one is required under this section and shall as part of the Federal order advise the individual that the medical examination shall be conducted by an authorized and licensed health worker, and with prior informed consent.

(c) As part of the medical examination, the Director may require an individual to provide information and undergo such testing as may be reasonably necessary to diagnose or confirm the presence or extent of infection with a quarantinable communicable disease.

(d) Individuals reasonably believed to be infected based on the results of a medical examination may be isolated, or if such results are inconclusive or unavailable, individuals may be quarantined or conditionally released in accordance with this part.

[82 FR 6971, Jan. 19, 2017]

§70.13   Payment for care and treatment.

(a) The Director may authorize payment for the care and treatment of individuals subject to medical examination, quarantine, isolation, and conditional release, subject to paragraphs (b) through (h) of this section.

(b) Payment for care and treatment shall be in the CDC's sole discretion and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c) Payment shall be secondary to the obligation of the United States or any third-party (i.e., any State or local governmental entity, private insurance carrier, or employer), under any other law or contractual agreement, to pay for such care and treatment, and shall be paid by the Director only after all third-party payers have made payment in satisfaction of their obligations.

(d) Payment may include costs for providing ambulance or other medical transportation when such services are deemed necessary by the Director for the individual's care and treatment.

(e) Payment shall be limited to those amounts the hospital, medical facility, or medical transportation service would customarily bill the Medicare system using the International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification (ICD-CM), and relevant regulations promulgated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services in existence at the time of billing.

(f) For quarantinable communicable diseases, payment shall be limited to costs for services and items reasonable and necessary for the care and treatment of the individual or group for the time period beginning when the Director refers the individual or group to the hospital or medical facility and ends when, as determined by the Director, the period of apprehension, quarantine, isolation, or conditional release expires.

(g) For diseases other than those described in paragraph (f) of this section, such payment shall be limited to costs for services and items reasonable and necessary for care and treatment of the individual for the time period that begins when the Director refers the individual to the hospital or medical facility and ends when the individual's condition is diagnosed, as determined by the Director, as an illness other than a quarantinable communicable disease.

(h) For ambulance or other medical transportation, payment shall be limited to the costs for such services and other items reasonable and necessary for the individual's safe medical transport.

[82 FR 6971, Jan. 19, 2017]

§70.14   Requirements relating to the issuance of a Federal order for quarantine, isolation, or conditional release.

(a) A Federal order authorizing quarantine, isolation, or conditional release shall be in writing, signed by the Director, and contain the following information:

(1) The identity of the individual or group subject to the order;

(2) The location of the quarantine or isolation or, in the case of conditional release, the entity to who and means by which the individual shall report for public health supervision;

(3) An explanation of the factual basis underlying the Director's reasonable belief that the individual is in the qualifying stage of a quarantinable communicable disease;

(4) An explanation of the factual basis underlying the Director's reasonable belief that the individual is moving or about to move from one State into another or constitutes a probable source of infection to others who may be moving from one State into another;

(5) An explanation that the Federal order will be reassessed no later than 72 hours after it has been served and an explanation of the medical review of the Federal order pursuant to this part, including the right to request a medical review, present witnesses and testimony at the medical review, and to be represented at the medical review by either an advocate (e.g., an attorney, family member, or physician) at the individual's own expense, or, if indigent, to have representatives appointed at the government's expense;

(6) An explanation of the criminal penalties for violating a Federal order of quarantine, isolation, or conditional release; and

(7) An explanation that if a medical examination is required as part of the Federal order that the examination will be conducted by an authorized and licensed health worker, and with prior informed consent.

(b) A Federal order authorizing quarantine, isolation, or conditional release shall be served on the individual no later than 72 hours after the individual has been apprehended, except that the Federal order may be published or posted in a conspicuous location if the Federal order is applicable to a group of individuals and individual service would be impracticable.

(c) The Director shall arrange for translation or interpretation services of the Federal order as needed.

(d) Nothing in this section shall affect the constitutional or statutory rights of individuals to obtain judicial review of their Federal detention.

[82 FR 6971, Jan. 19, 2017]

§70.15   Mandatory reassessment of a Federal order for quarantine, isolation, or conditional release.

(a) The Director (excluding the CDC official who issued the quarantine, isolation, or conditional release order) shall reassess the need to continue the quarantine, isolation, or conditional release of an individual no later than 72 hours after the service of the Federal order.

(b) As part of the reassessment, the Director (excluding the CDC official who issued the quarantine, isolation, or conditional release order) shall review all records considered in issuing the Federal order, including travel records, records evidencing exposure or infection with a quarantinable communicable disease, as well as any relevant new information.

(c) As part of the reassessment, and where applicable, the Director (excluding the CDC official who issued the quarantine, isolation, or conditional release order) shall consider and make a determination regarding whether less restrictive alternatives would adequately serve to protect the public health.

(d) At the conclusion of the reassessment, the Director (excluding the CDC official who issued the quarantine, isolation, or conditional release order) shall promptly issue and serve a written Federal order directing that the quarantine, isolation, or conditional release be continued, modified, or rescinded.

(e) In the event that the Director orders that the quarantine, isolation, or conditional release be continued or modified, the written Federal order shall explain the process for requesting a medical review under this part.

(f) The Director's written Federal order shall be promptly served on the individual, except that the Federal order may be served by publication or by posting in a conspicuous location if the Federal order is applicable to a group of individuals and individual service would be impracticable.

(g) The Director shall arrange for translation or interpretation services of the Federal order as needed.

[82 FR 6971, Jan. 19, 2017]

§70.16   Medical review of a Federal order for quarantine, isolation, or conditional release.

(a) The Director shall, as soon as practicable, arrange for a medical review upon a request by an individual under Federal quarantine, isolation, or conditional release.

(b) A request for a medical review may only occur after the Director's mandatory reassessment under section 70.15 and following the service of a Federal order continuing or modifying the quarantine, isolation, or conditional release.

(c) The medical review shall be for the purpose of ascertaining whether the Director has a reasonable belief that the individual is infected with a quarantinable communicable disease in a qualifying stage.

(d) The Director shall notify the individual in writing of the time and place of the medical review.

(e) The Director (excluding the CDC official who issued the quarantine, isolation, or conditional release order) shall designate a medical reviewer to review the medical or other evidence presented at the review, make medical or other findings of fact, and issue a recommendation concerning whether the Federal order for quarantine, isolation, or conditional release should be rescinded, continued, or modified.

(f) The individual under Federal quarantine, isolation, or conditional release may authorize an advocate (e.g., an attorney, family member, or physician) at his or her own expense to submit medical or other evidence and, in the medical reviewer's discretion, be allowed to present a reasonable number of medical experts. The Director (excluding the CDC official who issued the quarantine, isolation, or conditional release order) shall appoint representatives at government expense to assist the individual for purposes of the medical review upon a request and certification, under penalty of perjury, by that individual that he or she is indigent.

(g) Prior to the convening of the review, the individual or his/her authorized advocate or representatives shall be provided a reasonable opportunity to examine the available medical and other records involved in the medical review that pertain to that individual.

(h) The Director shall take such measures that he/she determines to be reasonably necessary to allow an individual under Federal quarantine or isolation to communicate with any authorized advocate or representatives in such a manner as to prevent the possible spread of the quarantinable communicable disease.

(i) The medical reviewer may order a medical examination of an individual when, in the medical reviewer's professional judgment, such an examination would assist in assessing the individual's medical condition.

(j) As part of the review, and where applicable, the medical reviewer shall consider and accept into the record evidence concerning whether less restrictive alternatives would adequately serve to protect public health.

(k) The medical review shall be conducted by telephone, audio or video conference, or through other means that the medical reviewer determines in his/her discretion are practicable for allowing the individual under quarantine, isolation, or conditional release to participate in the medical review.

(l) At the conclusion of the review, the medical reviewer shall, based upon his or her review of the facts and other evidence made available during the medical review, issue a written report to the Director (excluding the CDC official who issued the quarantine, isolation, or conditional release order) concerning whether, in the medical reviewer's professional judgment, the Federal quarantine, isolation, or conditional release should be rescinded, continued, or modified. The written report shall include a determination regarding whether less restrictive alternatives would adequately serve to protect public health. The written report shall be served on the individual and the individual's authorized advocate or representatives.

(m) The Director (excluding the CDC official who issued the quarantine, isolation, or conditional release order) shall, as soon as practicable, review the written report and any objections that may be submitted by the individual or the individual's authorized advocate or representatives that contest the findings and recommendation contained in the medical reviewer's written report. Upon conclusion of the review, the Director (excluding the CDC official who issued the quarantine, isolation, or conditional release order) shall promptly issue a written Federal order directing that the quarantine, isolation, or conditional release be continued, modified, or rescinded. In the event that the Director (excluding the CDC official who issued the quarantine, isolation, or conditional release order) continues or modifies the Federal quarantine, isolation, or conditional release, the Director's written order shall include a statement that the individual may request that the Director rescind the Federal quarantine, isolation, or conditional release, but based only on a showing of significant, new or changed facts or medical evidence that raise a genuine issue as to whether the individual should continue to be subject to Federal quarantine, isolation, or conditional release. The written Federal order shall be promptly served on the individual and the individual's authorized advocate or representatives, except that the Federal order may be served by publication or by posting in a conspicuous location if applicable to a group of individuals and individual service would be impracticable.

(n) The Director's written order shall not constitute final agency action until it has been served on the individual and the individual's authorized advocate or representatives, or alternatively, if applicable to a group of individuals and individual service would be impracticable, it is published or posted.

(o) The Director (excluding the CDC official who issued the quarantine, isolation, or conditional release order) may order the consolidation of one or more medical reviews if the number of individuals or other factors makes the holding of individual medical reviews impracticable.

(p) The Director may issue additional instructions as may be necessary or desirable governing the conduct of medical reviews.

(q) The Director shall arrange for translation or interpretation services as needed for purposes of this section.

[82 FR 6971, Jan. 19, 2017]

§70.17   Administrative records relating to Federal quarantine, isolation, or conditional release.

(a) The administrative record of an individual under Federal quarantine, isolation, or conditional release shall, where applicable, consist of the following:

(1) The Federal order authorizing quarantine, isolation, or conditional release, including any subsequent Federal orders continuing or modifying the quarantine, isolation or conditional release;

(2) Records of any available medical, laboratory, or other epidemiologic information that are in the agency's possession and that were considered in issuing the Federal quarantine, isolation, or conditional release order, or any subsequent Federal orders;

(3) Records submitted by the individual under quarantine, isolation, or conditional release, or by an authorized advocate or representatives, as part of a request for rescission of the Federal quarantine, isolation, or conditional release or as part of a medical review;

(4) The written findings and report of the medical reviewer, including any transcripts of the medical review and any written objections submitted by the individual under Federal quarantine, isolation, or conditional release, or by any authorized advocate or representatives;

(b) An individual subject to a Federal public health order shall upon request be served with a copy of his or her own administrative record in its entirety.

[82 FR 6971, Jan. 19, 2017]

§70.18   Penalties.

(a) Persons in violation of this part are subject to a fine of no more than $100,000 if the violation does not result in a death or one year in jail, or both, or a fine of no more than $250,000 if the violation results in a death or one year in jail, or both, or as otherwise provided by law.

(b) Violations by organizations are subject to a fine of no more than $200,000 per event if the violation does not result in a death or $500,000 per event if the violation results in a death or as otherwise provided by law.

[82 FR 6971, Jan. 19, 2017]

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